Wednesday, October 04, 2006

10th Week - 2nd Final Assignment For Bloggers Idol 2006

untuk pertama kalinya, izinkan akak mengolah entry ini with 70-80% english words coz most applications & lots of scientific words need to be applied, harap maklum.

Malaysia has had the facilities to process nuclear waste for the last 30 years (in Perak), with the increase in oil prices, should Malaysia look into having it's own Nuclear power plant?


13 Ogos 1983

......mohon bantuan kakak. keadaan kesihatan Adik Chu semakin kalut. kandungan nampaknya semakin bermasalah. Adik Chu semakin lemah...
Adik Chu

Pada 1975, Mitsubishi Chemical, or Mitsubishi Kasei, telah menubuhkan satu a joint venture company called Malaysian Rare Earth dan kemudian bertukar nama kepada Asian Rare Earth ARE) in Malaysia. The company was attracted to Malaysia by, among other things, being given a special tax-free status - 'pioneer industry' status - ini adalah kerana kerajaan Malaysia pada waktu itu amat berminat menarik perhatian preferred foreign investors. Mitsubishi jointly with a Malaysian company BEH Minerals were the majority shareholders (70 percent), Lembaga Urusan dan Tabung Haji, the state-owned Pilgrims' Management Fund Board, had a 20 percent interest, while the rest of the shares were distributed amongst several local businessmen. ARE's purpose was to extract rare earth from monazite in the town of Bukit Merah, in the state of Perak, which used to be a tin mining and farming area. In 1982, and before ARE began production, a contract was drawn up whereby it was agreed that the radioactive waste generated would become the property of the Perak State Government.

Mitsubishi Chemical, Japan's largest chemical producer, has wide engineering expertise and experience in the handling of dangerous chemicals and radioactive materials. It provided the ARE factory with the necessary technological and managerial expertise for its operation. The factory yielded tin concentrates and monazite. From the extract of monazite, a rare earth called yttrium oxide is extracted for commercial use to manufacture incandescent gaslight mantels, refractors, chemical catalysts, and pigments, which can be used for colour TV screens and nuclear fuels. The problem is that the process leaves a sludge containing significant amounts of 'naturally occurring radioactive materials' (NORMs), such as uranium and thorium. NORMs are harmless in nature as they are mixed with soil and therefore are in low concentrations. However, once dug up, they become concentrated and are known as 'technologically enhanced naturally occurring materials' (TENORMs), which have higher levels of radioactivity and must be properly disposed.

Apparently, since ARE had been established, the well-being and health of Bukit Merah residents, who were not aware of the potentially hazardous nature of the operation that the company was involved in, had deteriorated. Since its opening, ARE had not carried out an environmental impact assessment. Furthermore, for four years, it operated without a permanent, or a temporary, dump site for the waste. Pending the construction of a waste disposal building, the ARE factory was shut down for 2 years by the decision of the Ipoh High Court. In 1987, the factory resumed its operations.

After the resumption of factory operations in 1987 Bukit Merah children were tested for total blood count. The tests were done again a year later in 1988. Some deterioration in the children's health conditions was detected as about 39 percent of them suffered from a triad of mild lymphadenopathy, congestion turbinates and recurrent rhinitis. In 1989, two children in Bukit Merah, 5 and 7 years old, were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. According to Bertell, among a limited number of children in such a small village, occurrence of two leukaemia cases is considerably higher than Malaysia's average rate28.

Another survey on the health condition of Bukit Merah residents was carried out by Dr. Jayabalan. It revealed that problems associated with pregnancy and childbirth in Bukit Merah had been 7.5 percent, a considerably higher rate than the national average30. In 1986, Professor Sadao Ichikawa of Saitama University, Japan, carried out a radiation dosimetry test near the ARE factory's waste storage site, in which five out of seven points revealed radiation levels far exceeding the 100 mrem/yr ICRP dose limit31.

In February 1985, eight residents of Bukit Merah New Village filed a complaint against ARE with the High Court of Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia alleging that exposure to ARE's radioactive materials and waste were harmful to their health. They demanded the cessation of the plant's operation, clean-up of the radioactive materials and payment for damages (without specifying any amount). An injunction was obtained in November 1985 ordering ARE to cease its operation.

In February 1987, a licence was granted to ARE by a five-member Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB), representatives from the Tun Ismail Atomic Research Centre (PUSPATI), the Ministry of Health, and the Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment. ARE interpreted it as the green light to resume its operations even though the legal action was still in process.

Meanwhile, the campaign to stop ARE's operations was started in Japan. In April 1990, a collective group of Japanese unions and non-governmental organizations calling themselves the Japan, Asia, Africa and Latin America Solidarity Committee with over 4 million members started a signature campaign calling for the shutdown of ARE. Due to mounting public pressure in Japan, ARE was forced to close its operation in Bukit Merah. All the while, the company denied the accusations of wrongdoing, claiming the lack of scientific proof as to the harmful nature of its operations32.

To add a new twist to the developments, on 23 December 1993, by the ruling of the Supreme Court of Malaysia ARE was allowed to reopen the factory since, apparently, its operation had been considered by the Court as lawful and in compliance with regulations. It was also deemed that neither established facts nor scientific rationale had been produced to support the claims that the alleged health injuries of Bukit Merah residents were related to the operation of ARE.

The case of Bukit Merah was brought to public attention and highlighted by the major Malaysian newspapers. This helped to secure support from the general public, scientists and environmentalists both in Malaysia and abroad. The mounting public pressure led the Perak state Government to issue an order that all areas of suspected contamination surrounding the ARE factory be sealed.

In January 1994, ARE decided to cease its operations. The factory was having difficulties in obtaining monazite locally because of a decline in tin ore mining activities. Also it was facing competition from rare earth producers incorporated in neighbouring countries, such as China, which is the world's largest producer of rare earth. As a result, it was neither viable nor profitable to continue business in Malaysia.

That s too late. Adik Chu had infected with the radiation. Adik Chu passed away a year later, but the baby survived with a critical situation. The baby who is currently 22 years old now has been been adopted to her Auntie, the kakak in the letter. She is healthy but to loose a mom for the radiation in Bukit Merah is not forgiveable to everyone especially her.

With the increase in oil prices, so what we should do is identify how much oil prices have been moving say maybe from 1996 to 2006 .. a 10 year study .. what is the major impact on oil price rising especially on the macro economic of Malaysia ...

Sejak pertengahan tahun 2004, harga minyak mentah telah meningkat mendadak di pasaran dunia. Sebenarnya harga minyak mentah jenis West Texas Intermediate (iaitu harga rujukan di Amerika Syarikat dan dunia) telah meningkat daripada AS$19 setong pada 1993 kepada AS$31 pada 2003, kira-kira AS$51 pada Oktober 2004 dan mencecah AS$60 akhir-akhir ini.

Punca utama keadaan ini berlaku ialah:

i. Permintaan (82.5 juta tong sehari pada tahun 2004) hampir sama dengan bekalan (83.0 juta tong sehari) yang menyebabkan pasaran menjadi lebih tertekan;

ii. Permintaan minyak dunia semakin meningkat selaras dengan pertumbuhan ekonomi, khususnya dengan pertambahan penggunaan oleh China, India dan Amerika Syarikat;

iii. Keadaan yang tidak stabil di beberapa negara OPEC seperti Iraq, Nigeria dan Venezuela;1.- Cuaca buruk yang dialami beberapa negara pengeluar minyak seperti Hurricane Emily di Mexico yang menjejaskan pengeluaran minyak di negara itu dan

iv. Kegiatan spekulasi harga minyak.

Krisis kenaikan harga minyak dunia berlaku berpunca daripada The Arab Oil Embargomada tahun 1973 yang mengakibatkan harga minyak mentah di pasaran dunia melonjak daripada USD3.6 se tong pada tahun 1972 kepada USD12.9 se tong pada tahun 1974, iaitu kenaikan sebanyak 258 % atau kenaikan hampir 4 kali ganda. Perkara ini terjadi akibat peperangan di Israel, Syria dan Arab Saudi pada 5 Oktober 1973.

Dunia mengalami kejutan kedua dalam krisis harga minyak mentah di pasaran dunia apabila berlakunya revolusi di Iran yang menyaksikan harga minyak mentah dunia melonjak daripada USD32.1 se tong pada tahun 1979 kepada USD37.9 se tong pada tahun 1980.Kejutan ketiga berlaku pada tahun 1991 berikutan berlakunya Perang Teluk akibat pencerobohan Iraq ke atas Kuwait serta pencerobohan Amerika Syarikat ke atas Iraq.

Rentetan kejadian ini telah menyebabkan harga minyak mentah dunia melonjak naik ke paras tertinggi iaitu sebanyak USD36 setong. Krisis bekalan dan harga minyak telah mengakibatkan banyak negara termasuk di benua Afrika mengalami masalah keruntuhan ekonomi. Pertumbuhan ekonomi negara maju seperti Eropah, Amerika Syarikat dan Jepun turut terbantut pada ketika itu.

Permintaan terhadap bekalan minyak mentah di seluruh negara terutamanya dari China dan India serta bencana alam seperti Hurricane Emily di Mexico dan taufan Katrina turut menyumbang kepada kenaikan ini. Harga minyak mentah di pasaran dunia pada Januari 2004 adalah pada paras USD33 se tong. Pada Ogos 2005, harga ini terus mengalami peningkatan ke paras 69.8 se tong.

Apakah langkah-langkah Kerajaan untuk menggalakkan sumber tenaga alternatif?

Kerajaan menggalakkan penggunaan natural gas vehicles (NGV). Antara insentif yang disediakan oleh Kerajaan untuk menggalakkan penggunaan NGV ialah: o pengurangan cukai jalan iaitu 50 peratus untuk kenderaan monogas dan 25 peratus untuk kenderaan bi-fuel (diesel) dan dual-fuel (gasoline); dan menetapkan harga NGV pada paras 50 peratus lebih rendah daripada harga pam petrol.

Kerajaan juga sedang menggalakkan penggunaan Tenaga Boleh Diperbaharui (renewable energy) melalui program SREP (Small Renewable Energy Programme) iaitu projek penjanaan kurang daripada 10 MW dengan menggunakan biomass, landfill gas dan mini hidro

Bagi projek hidroelektrik, projek yang sedang dalam pembinaan ialah projek hidroelektrik Bakun. Projek ini dijangka siap tahun 2010 dan dijangka dapat menjana kuasa dengan kapasiti 2,400 MW.

Di samping itu, Kerajaan juga bercadang memperkenalkan penggunaan biodiesel atau green fuel dengan menggunakan minyak kelapa sawit yang dicampurkan dengan diesel untuk kenderaan.

Pada firasat akak sebagai rakyat yang memandang nuclear power plant as good pros to everyone:

Nuclear power plants can be used to produce radioactive materials and weapons grade nuclear materials that could be used by terrorists to poison the populace or make nuclear weapons.

The cost of the electricity generated from nuclear power plants looks cheap until you factor in the hidden costs to dispose of the nuclear waste. These costs are ultimately picked up by the government and therefore by the people.

Nuclear power plants need less fuel than ones which burn fossil fuels. One ton of uranium produces more energy than is produced by several million tons of coal or several million barrels of oil. Coal and oil burning plants pollute the air. Well-operated nuclear power plants do not release contaminants into the environment.

It is the cheapest and most clean way of producing electicity. It is a green energy that is it does not polute the atmosphere. No greenhouse gases, no posionous elements like Cd, Pb, etc in ash. No release of radioactive materials in fly ash. No NOx od SO2 polution. Very reliable does not depend on the solar cycle or rain fall.

Needs bit more capital than other electricity generating plants but the fuel cost is very low thus the levelized cost is the lowest. Takes at least 5 years to build a nuclear power plant and the power of such plants are 1300MWe.

The technology that takes care of the waste from the reactor is a known and proven technology.

Many people oppose nuclear power without knowing why or they are scared by anti nuclear lobby. The main problem of the nuclear power is the PR and educating the public with true scientific facts.

Nuclear energy is indeed useful, especially in light of global warming and rapid population growth. But for various reasons, developing countries like us in Malaysia are still not ready to handle this technology.

Nuclear power plant waste can now be disposed of using new technology like embedding the waste in glass nodules and burying them in deep salt domes.

Tetapi, bila ada pros, pastinya ada contrasnya pula, let s look at it:

Nuclear power plants produce large quantities of nuclear waste that remains dangerous for thousands of years and cannot be disposed of safely.

Nuclear power plants are dangerous. The fission chain reaction can run out of control, causing the hot fuel rods to burn through the bottom of the plant and release large amounts of nuclear material into the environment.

The strict safety guidelines make an accident in a modern nuclear power plant almost impossible. The backup and emergency systems would prevent any kind of accident from becoming dangerous

The typical nuclear power plant cannot be used to make weapons grade nuclear material or nuclear bombs. The security is very tight and the chances of radioactive materials leaving the plant are nearly zero.

The nations of the world now have more than enough nuclear bombs to kill every person on Earth. The two most powerful nations -- Russia and the United States -- have about 50,000 nuclear weapons between them. What if there were to be a nuclear war? What if terrorists got their hands on nuclear weapons? Or what if nuclear weapons were launched by accident?

There is pollution and hidden costs associated with all types of power plants, not just the nuclear ones. All in all, nuclear power plants produce the cheapest electricity available.

Ok, the last question that i want to hit is should Malaysia look into having it's own Nuclear powerplant?

Firstly, Malaysians lack the experienced engineers and scientists needed to operate nuclear power plants safely. We would need to spend a lot of money training the required personnel.

This money could be invested in simpler technologies that are easier to handle, provide good supplies of energy and are safe.In Egypt, for instance, solar and wind energy have become real alternatives.

It should be noted that some industrialized nations ? such as Germany ? are moving away from nuclear and towards these renewable energy sources.

An additional reason to be cautious about nuclear energy in the South is the rise of terrorist groups who could target nuclear power stations. At the same time, some developing countries that obtain nuclear technology may try to use it to develop nuclear weapons as well as power stations.

Well, akak - I am not totally against the transfer of nuclear technology to developing nations, but I believe that most of them are just not ready yet.

Masa depan Nuclear Energy

Some people think that nuclear energy is here to stay and we must learn to live with it. Others say that we should get rid of all nuclear weapons and power plants. Both sides have their cases as there are advantages and disadvantages to nuclear energy. Still others have opinions that fall somewhere in between.

What do you think we should do? After reviewing the pros and cons, it is up to you to formulate your own opinion.

Nuclear explosions produce radiation. The nuclear radiation harms the cells of the body which can make people sick or even kill them. Illness can strike people years after their exposure to nuclear radiation.

One possible type of reactor disaster is known as a meltdown. In such an accident, the fission reaction goes out of control, leading to a nuclear explosion and the emission of great amounts of radiation.

Nuclear reactors also have waste disposal problems. Reactors produce nuclear waste products which emit dangerous radiation. Because they could kill people who touch them, they cannot be thrown away like ordinary garbage. Currently, many nuclear wastes are stored in special cooling pools at the nuclear reactors.

Nuclear reactors only last for about forty to fifty years.

Dari keratan akhbar inilah yang menyebabkan tercetusnya semula soalan nuclear powerplant untuk akak huraikan:

Antara isinya... Malaysia may go for nuke energy By ROSLINA MOHAMAD

KUANTAN: Malaysia may explore the use of nuclear technology for power if the oil price shoots up to US$100 (RM370) a barrel.

Science, Technology and Innovation Minister Datuk Seri Dr Jamaluddin Jarjis said the country need not venture into nuclear technology at present to generate power.

However, the world is changing. Who would have thought oil could hit US$70 (RM259) a barrel, he told reporters at the 4th Informal Asean Ministerial Meeting on Science and Technology here yesterday.

There is even the possibility the price could shoot up to US$100 a barrel. When that happens, Tenaga Nasional Bhd will have no choice but to increase its tariff or go bankrupt.

.....and so on

Nuclear power generates very little amount of highly radioactive waste. The toxicidity of this waste dimishes with time. After a very long time the activity of the nuclear waste will be same as earths surface. (This will take a very very long)

Nuclear power gives energy independence to a nation. Considering the strings attached to gas and petroleum sales in the international markets, nations that do not dependent of foreign energy resources have free hand in diplomacy.

Well, akak - I am not totally against the transfer of nuclear technology to develope nations like negara kita Malaysia, sekali lagi akak tegaskan di sini, but I believe that most of them are just not ready yet. When we talk about kids and mothers, family some more, it s hard to accept the nuclear powerplant, if it s not for someone around us, being a rakyat jelata, tak banyak sikit like the workers etcs will be effected some of it.

I shouldn't think this action should take place by the government, but if it is still happening, the contras of the action needs to be reviewed back. Back again to the needful of the nuclear powerplant, how urgency we need the process to be applied is also a big question mark. I m truly concerned on the environment, as a Muslim, i believe kita berada di penghujung zaman, so by digging the soil, it s gonna give a full impact to everyone.
I insist, it should not happen.

Credit: Full cooperation by Bernama, MINT and Consumer Association.


ArcHmaL HatiEmieY said...

full of fact!!!

style of writing-masih kekalkan originality identiti sendiri akak..

tahniah akak....akaklah juara baru Blogger Idols 2006...

eVerYthInG SHASHAY @ ASH said...

15K patah perkataan katanye or bersamaan dgn 15 helai kertas kajang nie ...ikikiki mmg plg gigih la compare ngan semua2 entri yang terdahulu. hmmm kalu gogoniser adakan satu lagi crown untuk blogger yg plg gigih sepanjang contest ni mmg makmerah adalah ultimate champion. akhir kata dri yg mengikuti bi 06 n blog ni from de beginning .. ash nk ucapkan 'good fighters fight good' n makmerah dhpun tunjukkan smgt kefighteran(ada ker??)yg ada lam dirinya. n to dbi n nadh ash wishkan success alwiz n keep writing uols. to gogonizer of bi 06 thnks coz u believe in all ur contestants -ps next year buat lagi ekk??, n 2 all juries baik yg 5 skarng or yg lepas2 .. uols rocks!!!
ash logging out.

MAKosama said...

clap clap clap
Mak baca ulang kali nak fahamkan...akhirnya boleh lah faham. A factual assignment which attracts only those who have interest and deep understanding on such topic. Susah but you did very well.

Affy Ronan said...

kak red..seswai sgt jadi bloggers idol 2006..even busy ngn family sume...boleh buat buku ni...baru fahma bout the nuclear sume tu..tak tahu pun bout that b4 tis

Ujang_MD said...

wah gratzz akak.. meletup assigment akak.. hehehee leh tahan.. part ending tuh ehehe!! GOOD LUCK..